Difference between rural and urban community pdf
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- urban area
- What is the Difference between Rural and Urban Community in Sociology
- What Unites and Divides Urban, Suburban and Rural Communities
- Rural and Urban Health
Based on the density of population, development, amenities, employment opportunities, education, etc.
The difference between urban and rural development levels URDL and the deficiency of rural development level have become the weak points for China to achieve balanced and high-quality development. In order to reveal the changing trend of urban-rural differences in China over the years and provide a reference for the policy-making of the balanced development of urban and rural areas and high-quality economic development, this paper uses the United Nations Development Program-adjusted Human Development Index HDI calculation method to calculate the urban and rural areas, based on — national time series data and provincial panel data. On this basis, this paper uses the Logarithmic Mean Weight Divisia to decompose the dynamic changes of the difference of URDL and analyzes the spatial equilibrium of the change trend of the differences of URDL, supplementing the shortcomings of the existing literature which only focuses on income, education, and other local areas and lacks continuity and comparison.
Visit profiles to view data profiles on chronic and disabling conditions and on young retirees and older workers. The rural population is consistently less well-off than the urban population with respect to health. Differences between the two populations are not always substantial, however. The rural population is more likely to engage in risky health-related behaviors and to experience higher rates of chronic conditions and activity limitations.
Rural residents are also more likely to be uninsured for longer periods of time, and are less likely than urban residents to receive some types of health care, including tests for various chronic conditions. Limited access to health care in rural areas is generally associated with the fact that there are fewer providers. People who reside in a MSA are referred to as urban residents and those who live in a non-MSA are referred to as rural residents.
About one-fifth of the U. Larger differences between the rural and urban populations may be masked as a result of the way the data are reported. For example, a rural area may refer to a county with a city of 10, or more, or to a frontier area which has an extremely low population density, usually fewer than 6 people per square mile. A larger proportion of the rural population than the urban population reports fair to poor physical and mental health.
For example, the proportion of rural residents reporting fair to poor physical health is almost one and a half times the proportion of urban residents. Differences in the proportions of adults in rural and urban areas with specific chronic conditions are small, but the pattern is consistent. The proportions of adults in rural areas with chronic conditions are slightly larger than their urban counterparts. For example, somewhat larger proportions of rural men and women report heart problems, compared to their urban counterparts see Figure 1.
One-third of adults in rural areas, compared to less than one-quarter of adults in urban areas, report that they are limited in performing a major activity such as paid work, housework, or school. Among persons age 18 and older, larger proportions of rural residents than urban residents also report limitations related to social, recreational, or family activities. Adults in rural areas are also more likely to report physical limitations.
Some 14 percent compared to 9 percent in urban areas say that they have a physical limitation including difficulty walking 10 steps, 3 blocks, or 1 mile, lifting 10 pounds, standing for 20 minutes, bending or stooping, reaching over their head, or using their fingers to grasp see Figure 2. Overall, slightly larger proportions of adults in rural areas, compared to those in urban areas, engage in risky health-related behaviors.
For example, 26 percent of those residing in a rural area, compared to 23 percent of those residing in an urban area, currently smoke. And among adults who have consumed alcohol in the past year, a larger proportion of rural residents consume an average of 5 or more drinks in one day. Rural residents are also more likely to be overweight or obese and to abstain from regular exercise see Figure 3. In general, smaller proportions of adults residing in a rural area than those residing in an urban area are screened for various types of cancer, including prostate, breast, colon, and skin cancer.
Among men ages 50 and older, for example, some 82 per-cent of rural residents and 87 percent of urban residents have had a prostate exam. Also, half of urban residents age 50 and older have had a blood stool test for colo-rectal cancer, compared to 42 percent of rural residents age 50 and older.
Although the number of AIDS cases in rural areas is rising rapidly, rural residents age 18 and older are less likely to be tested for AIDS compared to urban residents see Figure 4. Among the population under age 65, some 19 percent of rural residents and 16 percent of urban residents are uninsured.
Rural residents tend to stay uninsured for longer periods of time than urban residents. Factors that may contribute to this disparity include the higher percentage of self-employed persons, small businesses, and agricultural enterprises in rural areas. Over one-third of rural residents, compared to about one-quarter of urban residents, have been uninsured for more than three years.
A larger proportion of urban residents have never been insured, however see Figure 5. Rural residents pay a larger proportion — 29 percent — of their health care costs out-of-pocket than do urban residents — 23 percent see Figure 6. Less than 11 percent of physicians in the U. Provider recruitment and retention problems in rural areas are related to several factors including lower salaries, geographic isolation from peers and educational opportunities, and fewer amenities such as schools and recreation.
The Department of Health and Human Services recommends a provider-to-patient ratio of one primary care physician to every 2, individuals. Over 20 million rural Americans live in areas that have a provider-to-patient ratio of 1 to 3, or less and are federally designated as health professional shortage areas HPSAs. More than 2, physicians are needed to remove the HPSA designation from all rural areas, but more than twice that number is needed to achieve the recommended ratio of 1 to 2, in these areas.
More than three-quarters of the counties designated as federal mental HPSAs are rural. Receipt of dental care differs between the urban and rural populations. Among adults ages 18 to 64, for example, some 66 percent of urban adults have been to the dentist in the past year, compared to 59 percent of rural adults.
This disparity is likely related to the low supply of dentists in rural areas. There are 29 dentists per , residents in most rural areas, compared to 61 per , in urban areas. The rural population is somewhat more likely than the urban population to use hospital services, including emergency room visits and overnight hospital stays.
Some 10 percent of rural residents, compared to 8 percent of urban residents, have stayed overnight in the hospital in the past year see Figure 7. The scarcity of primary care physicians in rural areas is one factor that may contribute to greater use of hospital services.
Among the population age 65 and older, those in rural areas receive fewer home health care services and have worse outcomes than those in urban areas. Rural elders are more likely to be hospitalized, for example. Telemedicine offers the potential to provide health care services across vast distances to underserved urban and rural areas.
Telemedicine is the use of electronic communication and information technologies to provide clinical care at a distance. It can provide individuals in rural areas access to teleconsultations with health care providers and specialists that otherwise may not occur.
Telemedicine may also help attract and retain health care providers in rural areas by providing ongoing training and interaction with other providers. The lack of insurance reimbursement has been a barrier to bringing telemedicine into underserved areas, but is likely to be less of a factor in the future.
The Act also permits Medicare to provide teleconsultations in all rural areas. Schur, C. NRHA Facts About…Rural Physicians. American Psychological Association CDC Schlenker, M. Report to the Congress: Medicare in Rural America. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services June 5, Medicaid and Telemedicine. Orloff, T. Unless otherwise noted, the data presented in this Profile are from two national surveys of the United States civilian non-institutionalized population.
The series is supported by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. It is the seventh in the series. Previous Profiles include:. The Center studies the impact of demographic changes on public and private institutions and on the economic and health security of families and people of all ages.
Health care service use differs The rural population is consistently less well-off than the urban population with respect to health.
The rural population is somewhat less healthy than the urban population A larger proportion of the rural population than the urban population reports fair to poor physical and mental health. Chronic conditions are somewhat more common among adults in rural areas Differences in the proportions of adults in rural and urban areas with specific chronic conditions are small, but the pattern is consistent. Adults in rural areas experience higher rates of limitations One-third of adults in rural areas, compared to less than one-quarter of adults in urban areas, report that they are limited in performing a major activity such as paid work, housework, or school.
Risky health behaviors are somewhat more common among adults in rural areas Overall, slightly larger proportions of adults in rural areas, compared to those in urban areas, engage in risky health-related behaviors. Adults in rural areas are less likely to be tested for chronic conditions In general, smaller proportions of adults residing in a rural area than those residing in an urban area are screened for various types of cancer, including prostate, breast, colon, and skin cancer.
National Rural Health Association Previous Profiles include: 1. Screening for Chronic Conditions: Underused services 2. Childhood Obesity: A lifelong threat to health 3. Visual Impairment: A growing concern as the population ages 4. Cancer: A major national concern 5. Prescription Drugs: A vital component of health care 6.
What is the Difference between Rural and Urban Community in Sociology
Visit profiles to view data profiles on chronic and disabling conditions and on young retirees and older workers. The rural population is consistently less well-off than the urban population with respect to health. Differences between the two populations are not always substantial, however. The rural population is more likely to engage in risky health-related behaviors and to experience higher rates of chronic conditions and activity limitations. Rural residents are also more likely to be uninsured for longer periods of time, and are less likely than urban residents to receive some types of health care, including tests for various chronic conditions. Limited access to health care in rural areas is generally associated with the fact that there are fewer providers. People who reside in a MSA are referred to as urban residents and those who live in a non-MSA are referred to as rural residents.
Following discussion shows the difference between rural and urban communities, which shows how rural and urban areas are not the same. Density of Population: The population in rural areas is spares. Even the villages and hamlets basti or chak have small population. The urban areas are thickly populated. In a city of few square miles millions of people live. The houses are joined together. Social mobility: Among the rural people, the social changes are seldom found.
What Unites and Divides Urban, Suburban and Rural Communities
Most people have a clear impression of what the cities, towns and countryside look like in the UK, both physically and in terms of the lives of the people who live there. This article compares rural and urban areas statistically for themes such as working, earnings, services and population, using geographical classifications. There is quantitative evidence that rural areas are better off than urban areas on a number of different measures, such as unemployment and crime, but there are substantial differences within both rural and urban areas.
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Rural and Urban Health
Large demographic shifts are reshaping America. But according to a new analysis by Pew Research Center, these trends are playing out differently across community types. Urban areas are at the leading edge of racial and ethnic change, with nonwhites now a clear majority of the population in urban counties while solid majorities in suburban and rural areas are white. Urban and suburban counties are gaining population due to an influx of immigrants in both types of counties, as well as domestic migration into suburban areas. In contrast, rural counties have made only minimal gains since as the number of people leaving for urban or suburban areas has outpaced the number moving in. And while the population is graying in all three types of communities, this is happening more rapidly in the suburbs than in urban and rural counties.
Metrics details. There is evidence that rural residents experience a health disadvantage compared to urban residents, associated with a greater prevalence of health risk factors and socioeconomic differences. Data were collected from respondents in two rural areas Haldimand-Norfolk, Ontario and Annapolis Valley-Kings County, Nova Scotia and respondents in five urban areas Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax using a h recall diary and supplementary questionnaires administered using computer-assisted telephone interviews. We evaluated differences in time-activity patterns, occupational activity, and housing characteristics between rural and urban populations using multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for design as well as demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Taylor linearization method and design-adjusted Wald tests were used to test statistical significance.
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In many cases, the differences between urban and rural residents can be attributed to the fact that rural areas tend to have a higher concentration.
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Пустые, но мои, черт тебя дери. - Прошу прощения, - сказал Беккер, поворачиваясь, чтобы уйти. Парень загородил ему дорогу. - Подними. Беккер заморгал от неожиданности. Дело принимало дурной оборот.
- Он посмотрел на экран. - Осталось девять минут. Сьюзан, не слушая его, повернулась к Соши. - Сколько там этих сироток? - спросила. Соши развела руками. Она села за терминал Джаббы и перепечатала все группы, а закончив, подбежала к Сьюзан. Все посмотрели на экран.
Ступени были настолько крутыми, что на них нашли свою смерть множество туристов.