X rays in atomic and nuclear physics pdf
File Name: x rays in atomic and nuclear physics .zip
X-rays in atomic and nuclear physics
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Nuclear physics is ubiquitous in our lives: Detecting smoke in our homes, testing for and treating cancer, and monitoring cargo for contraband are just some of the ways that nuclear physics and the techniques it has spawned make a difference in our safety, health, and security. Answers to some of the most important questions facing our planet will come from nuclear science, interdisciplinary efforts in energy and climate, and marketplace innovations. The economic impact of the applications of nuclear physics is significant.
In physics , the atomic form factor , or atomic scattering factor , is a measure of the scattering amplitude of a wave by an isolated atom. The atomic form factor depends on the type of scattering , which in turn depends on the nature of the incident radiation, typically X-ray , electron or neutron. The common feature of all form factors is that they involve a Fourier transform of a spatial density distribution of the scattering object from real space to momentum space also known as reciprocal space. For crystals, atomic form factors are used to calculate the structure factor for a given Bragg peak of a crystal. As a result, X-rays are not very sensitive to light atoms, such as hydrogen and helium , and there is very little contrast between elements adjacent to each other in the periodic table.
Each type of atom or element has its own characteristic electromagnetic spectrum. In this section, we explore characteristic x rays and some of their important applications. We have previously discussed x rays as a part of the electromagnetic spectrum in Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum. That module illustrated how an x-ray tube a specialized CRT produces x rays.
The study of atomic spectra provides most of our knowledge about atoms. In modern science, atomic spectra are used to identify species of atoms in a range of objects, from distant galaxies to blood samples at a crime scene.