Female reproductive hormones and their functions pdf
File Name: female reproductive hormones and their functions .zip
- What to know about female sex hormones
- Physiologic Course of Female Reproductive Function: A Molecular Look into the Prologue of Life
- Antenatal Care Module: 4. Hormonal Regulation of the Female Reproductive System
- How Do Female Sex Hormones Affect Menstruation, Pregnancy, and Other Functions?
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What to know about female sex hormones
Female sex hormones, or sex steroids, play vital roles in sexual development, reproduction, and general health. Sex hormone levels change over time, but some of the most significant changes happen during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause. In this article, we discuss the different types of female sex hormones, their roles in the body, and how they affect arousal. Hormones are chemical messengers that the endocrine glands produce and release into the bloodstream. Hormones help regulate many bodily processes, such as appetite, sleep, and growth. Sex hormones are those that play an essential role in sexual development and reproduction.
The onset of puberty is controlled by two major hormones: FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH signals the release of testosterone. Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. The average onset of puberty is age 11 or 12 for boys. These changes are largely influenced by hormonal activity. Hormones play an organizational role, priming the body to behave in a certain way once puberty begins, and an activational role, referring to changes in hormones during adolescence that trigger behavioral and physical changes.
Physiologic Course of Female Reproductive Function: A Molecular Look into the Prologue of Life
The genetic, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms underlying female reproduction are numerous and sophisticated, displaying complex functional evolution throughout a woman's lifetime. This vital course may be systematized in three subsequent stages: prenatal development of ovaries and germ cells up until in utero arrest of follicular growth and the ensuing interim suspension of gonadal function; onset of reproductive maturity through puberty, with reinitiation of both gonadal and adrenal activity; and adult functionality of the ovarian cycle which permits ovulation, a key event in female fertility, and dictates concurrent modifications in the endometrium and other ovarian hormone-sensitive tissues. Indeed, the ultimate goal of this physiologic progression is to achieve ovulation and offer an adequate environment for the installation of gestation, the consummation of female fertility. Strict regulation of these processes is important, as disruptions at any point in this evolution may equate a myriad of endocrine-metabolic disturbances for women and adverse consequences on offspring both during pregnancy and postpartum. This review offers a summary of pivotal aspects concerning the physiologic course of female reproductive function.
In addition to their role in producing ova, the ovaries also have the distinction of being an endocrine gland because they secrete hormones—primarily estrogen and progesterone—that are vital to normal reproductive development and fertility. Estrogen replacement therapy during menopause protects bone mass and helps protect against the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Treatment for ovarian cysts depends on the size and type of cyst. He or she will determine what treatment is best for you. Endocrine Community. Email Print Discuss. Written by Robert M.
Variation in the concentration of female reproductive hormones can be measured common form in urine, whereas free steroids are.
Antenatal Care Module: 4. Hormonal Regulation of the Female Reproductive System
In the previous study session you learned about the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system. The hormones oestrogen and progesterone were briefly introduced. In this study session you will learn much more about the role of these and other important hormones involved in the regulation of the human menstrual cycle, the monthly production of mature ova eggs by females of reproductive age, and the preparation of the uterus as a welcoming environment for the start of a pregnancy. SAQs 4. As you will probably remember from your previous high school biology course, the various functions of the body are regulated by the nervous system and the hormonal system.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus , where it may become fertilized by a sperm. The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility. The ovary progresses through many stages beginning in the prenatal period through menopause.
Hormones are natural substances produced in the body. They help to relay messages between cells and organs and affect many bodily functions. Keep reading to learn more about the female sex hormones, how they fluctuate throughout your life, and signs of a hormonal imbalance.
How Do Female Sex Hormones Affect Menstruation, Pregnancy, and Other Functions?
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How is the HPG axis regulated in species with different reproductive strategies? What internal and external conditions modulate the synthesis.