Psychology science of mind and behaviour pdf
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- Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour, 4e
- Psychology: The Science of Mind & Behaviour
- Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour
Psychology is a relatively young science with its experimental roots in the 19th century, compared, for example, to human physiology, which dates much earlier. As mentioned, anyone interested in exploring issues related to the mind generally did so in a philosophical context prior to the 19th century. Two men, working in the 19th century, are generally credited as being the founders of psychology as a science and academic discipline that was distinct from philosophy. Their names were Wilhelm Wundt and William James.
Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour, 4e
Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties, joining this way the broader neuro-scientific group of researchers. As a social science, it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.
In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral , or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior , while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.
Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception , cognition , attention , emotion , intelligence , subjective experiences , motivation , brain functioning , and personality. This extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships , including psychological resilience , family resilience , and other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind. In addition , or in opposition , to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques.
Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry , whereas social sciences most commonly draw directly from sub-disciplines within psychology.
While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts, psychology ultimately aims to benefit society. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings e.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas  such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. In , William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions".
This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson , who in his manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior. Also since James defined it, the term more strongly connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. The ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology.
In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned depression and thought disorders. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius , and later from the doctrines of Buddhism.
This body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, and interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power. An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin—yang balance, and analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria.
Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi — , Liu Zhi — , and Wang Qingren — Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia , and advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function.
Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, and Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher awareness.
Yoga is a range of techniques used in pursuit of this goal. However, Indian doctrines influenced Western thinking via the Theosophical Society , a New Age group which became popular among Euro-American intellectuals. Psychology was a popular topic in Enlightenment Europe. In Germany, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz — applied his principles of calculus to the mind, arguing that mental activity took place on an indivisible continuum—most notably, that among an infinity of human perceptions and desires, the difference between conscious and unconscious awareness is only a matter of degree.
Christian Wolff identified psychology as its own science, writing Psychologia empirica in and Psychologia rationalis in This notion advanced further under Immanuel Kant , who established the idea of anthropology , with psychology as an important subdivision.
However, Kant explicitly and notoriously rejected the idea of experimental psychology , writing that "the empirical doctrine of the soul can also never approach chemistry even as a systematic art of analysis or experimental doctrine, for in it the manifold of inner observation can be separated only by mere division in thought, and cannot then be held separate and recombined at will but still less does another thinking subject suffer himself to be experimented upon to suit our purpose , and even observation by itself already changes and displaces the state of the observed object.
However, this discipline did not yet embrace experimentation. Gustav Fechner began conducting psychophysics research in Leipzig in the s, articulating the principle Weber—Fechner law that human perception of a stimulus varies logarithmically according to its intensity.
Wundt, in turn, came to Leipzig University, establishing the psychological laboratory which brought experimental psychology to the world. Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material.
Stanley Hall , who studied with Wundt, formed a psychology lab at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, which became internationally influential. Hall, in turn, trained Yujiro Motora , who brought experimental psychology, emphasizing psychophysics, to the Imperial University of Tokyo.
Catell, who also studied with eugenicist Francis Galton , went on to found the Psychological Corporation. Wittmer focused on mental testing of children; Scott, on selection of employees. Another student of Wundt, Edward Titchener , created the psychology program at Cornell University and advanced a doctrine of " structuralist " psychology.
Structuralism sought to analyze and classify different aspects of the mind, primarily through the method of introspection. In , James wrote an influential book, The Principles of Psychology , which expanded on the realm of structuralism, memorably described the human " stream of consciousness ", and interested many American students in the emerging discipline. A different strain of experimentalism, with more connection to physiology, emerged in South America, under the leadership of Horacio G.
This approach is based upon the idea that individuals experience things as unified wholes. Rather than breaking down thoughts and behavior into smaller elements, as in structuralism, the Gestaltists maintained that whole of experience is important, and differs from the sum of its parts. Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus , a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin ,  and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov , who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed " classical conditioning " and applied to human beings.
The first meeting of the International Congress of Psychology sponsored by the International Union of Psychological Science took place in Paris, in August , amidst the World's Fair celebrating the centennial of the French Revolution. William James was one of three Americans among the four hundred attendees.
The International Congress continued to be held, at different locations in Europe, with wider international participation. American psychology gained status during World War I, during which a standing committee headed by Robert Yerkes administered mental tests " Army Alpha " and " Army Beta " to almost 1.
In contrast to the US, in the UK psychology was met with antagonism by the scientific and medical establishments, and up until there were only six psychology charis in Universities in England. University of Michigan psychologist Dorwin Cartwright reported that university researchers began large-scale propaganda research in —, and "the last few months of the war saw a social psychologist become chiefly responsible for determining the week-by-week-propaganda policy for the United States Government.
In Germany after World War I, psychology held institutional power through the military, and subsequently expanded along with the rest of the military under the Third Reich.
Freudian psychoanalysts were expelled and persecuted under the anti-Jewish policies of the Nazi Party , and all psychologists had to distance themselves from Freud and Adler. This psychotherapy aimed to align suitable Germans with the overall goals of the Reich; as described by one physician: "Despite the importance of analysis, spiritual guidance and the active cooperation of the patient represent the best way to overcome individual mental problems and to subordinate them to the requirements of the Volk and the Gemeinschaft.
Alexander Mitscherlich founded a prominent applied psychoanalysis journal called Psyche and with funding from the Rockefeller Foundation established the first clinical psychosomatic medicine division at Heidelberg University. In , psychology was integrated into the required studies of medical students.
After the Russian Revolution , psychology was heavily promoted by the Bolsheviks as a way to engineer the "New Man" of socialism.
Thus, university psychology departments trained large numbers of students, for whom positions were made available at schools, workplaces, cultural institutions, and in the military. An especial focus was pedology , the study of child development, regarding which Lev Vygotsky became a prominent writer. Luria , and Aron Zalkind were denounced; Ivan Pavlov posthumously and Stalin himself were aggrandized as heroes of Soviet psychology. There emerged a new field called " engineering psychology " which studied mental aspects of complex jobs such as pilot and cosmonaut.
Interdisciplinary studies became popular and scholars such as Georgy Shchedrovitsky developed systems theory approaches to human behavior. Twentieth-century Chinese psychology originally modeled the U. Chinese psychologists were encouraged to focus on education and language learning, with the aspiration that education would enable modernization and nationalization.
John Dewey, who lectured to Chinese audiences in —, had a significant influence on this doctrine. Chinese psychologists elaborated on Lenin's model of a "reflective" consciousness, envisioning an "active consciousness" pinyin : tzu-chueh neng-tung-li able to transcend material conditions through hard work and ideological struggle.
They developed a concept of "recognition" pinyin : jen-shih which referred the interface between individual perceptions and the socially accepted worldview failure to correspond with party doctrine was "incorrect recognition". Most leading psychologists were educated in the United States, and the first concern of the Academy was re-education of these psychologists in the Soviet doctrines.
Child psychology and pedagogy for nationally cohesive education remained a central goal of the discipline. Several associations including the Association of Black Psychologists and the Asian American Psychological Association have arisen to promote non-European racial groups in the profession.
The International Union recognizes 66 national psychology associations and at least 15 others exist. The Interamerican Society of Psychology, founded in , aspires to promote psychology and coordinate psychologists across the Western Hemisphere. It holds the Interamerican Congress of Psychology and had 1, members in year The European Federation of Professional Psychology Associations, founded in , represents 30 national associations with a total of , individual members.
At least 30 other international groups organize psychologists in different regions. In some places, governments legally regulate who can provide psychological services or represent themselves as a "psychologist". Early practitioners of experimental psychology distinguished themselves from parapsychology , which in the late nineteenth century enjoyed great popularity including the interest of scholars such as William James , and indeed constituted the bulk of what people called "psychology".
Parapsychology, hypnotism, and psychism were major topics of the early International Congresses. But students of these fields were eventually ostractized, and more or less banished from the Congress in — As a discipline, psychology has long sought to fend off accusations that it is a "soft" science. Philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn 's critique implied psychology overall was in a pre-paradigm state, lacking the agreement on overarching theory found in mature sciences such as chemistry and physics.
Skeptics have suggested that personality, thinking, and emotion, cannot be directly measured and are often inferred from subjective self-reports, which may be problematic.
Experimental psychologists have devised a variety of ways to indirectly measure these elusive phenomenological entities. Divisions still exist within the field, with some psychologists more oriented towards the unique experiences of individual humans, which cannot be understood only as data points within a larger population.
Critics inside and outside the field have argued that mainstream psychology has become increasingly dominated by a "cult of empiricism" which limits the scope of its study by using only methods derived from the physical sciences.
Jean Grimshaw, for example, argues that mainstream psychological research has advanced a patriarchal agenda through its efforts to control behavior. Psychologists generally consider the organism the basis of the mind, and therefore a vitally related area of study. Psychiatrists and neuropsychologists work at the interface of mind and body. Key research topics in this field include comparative psychology , which studies humans in relation to other animals, and perception which involves the physical mechanics of sensation as well as neural and mental processing.
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Psychology: The Science of Mind & Behaviour
Psychology: the science of mind and behavior imparts students with a scientific understanding of the field of psychology while showing them the impact on their day-to-day existence. A simple conceptual framework within the text emphasizes relations between biological, psychological, and environmental levels of analysis and portrays the focus of modern psychology. Scholastic assessment or g? The relationship between the scholastic assessment test and general cognitive ability. Psychological Science, 15 6 , Two earlier.
By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior, according to the American Psychological Association. Psychology is a multifaceted discipline and includes many sub-fields of study such areas as human development, sports, health, clinical, social behavior and cognitive processes. Psychology is really a very new science, with most advances happening over the past years or so.
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Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour
Michael W. Passer, Ph. He received his bachelors degree from the University of Rochester and his PhD in Psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles, with a specialization in social psychology. Passer has been a faculty member at the University of Washington since Passer has had a career-long love of teaching.