Water hygiene and sanitation pdf
File Name: water hygiene and sanitation .zip
- Water, sanitation and hygiene for populations at risk
- Secure access to prevent malnutrition
We aim to guarantee access to water and basic sanitation, which are both necessary for the life and development of communities. When faced with health risks, our aim focuses on reducing diseases related to poor water, hygiene and sanitation conditions. Hygiene promotion is related to improved quality of life through awareness-raising campaigns. Access to water and sanitation is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. According to the WHO, million people worldwide do not have access to safe water and 2.
In densely populated settings, bulk water chlorination Section 3. Household water chlorination is not recommended as first choice in these settings, unless this method has started to be implemented before the beginning of the outbreak.
In scattered or difficult-to-reach rural populations, bucket chlorination Section 3. Information on water disinfectants, practical demonstrations of use, constant supply and monitoring of appropriate and consistent use are essential.
If water disinfectants are not available, and no alternative can be offered, water intended for drinking and cooking should be boiled. Hand-washing facilities with water and soap or only 0. Public hand-washing facilities must be maintained for the duration of the outbreak. An important barrier to hand hygiene in low-income populations is the high cost of soap relative to household income. Regular distributions of soap are systematic in refugee or internally displaced populations.
Information about the time and place of the distribution must be communicated to the population and associated with the promotion of hand-washing at critical times Section 3. It is important not to include treatment sachets of ORS or water disinfectant products in the kit in order to avoid confusion and accidental ingestion of chemical products.
Food sold by street vendors and in restaurants is a risk if it is contaminated. The health authorities can decide to stop street food sales during an outbreak. Otherwise, an awareness raising campaign to educate vendors on food safety should be set up 1. During the early phase of an emergency, when sanitation facilities are absent, defecation fields or trenches should be set up for the first few days Section 3. At the same time, plans must be made for the construction of permanent latrines.
Early on, it is difficult to ensure each family constructs a latrine. Depending on the means or space available, alternatives include the construction of public latrines used by all or shared or cluster latrines used by households, around 20 people. Nevertheless, individual family latrines should be provided as soon as possible, as the population will probably remain in the camp far longer than the duration of the epidemic.
The number of latrines needed in urban areas is high. However the large-scale construction of these during an epidemic is not usually feasible given the difficulty and delays inherent in obtaining the appropriate administrative authorization and construction material, organizing community participation, etc.
Building public latrines or repairing existing ones is often the only option in the immediate term. Public latrine placement should be prioritized in those areas where the risk of transmission is very high: markets, train and bus stations, etc.
Public latrines in good condition are usually those that are fee-for-use. Negotiating the free use of these latrines by offering to pay the owner a daily fee makes them more widely accessible to the population. In all events, it is essential to organize the regular cleaning and maintenance of these public latrines and associated hand-washing points for the duration of the epidemic.
In certain situations e. The rapid construction of latrines in rural areas is even less feasible than in urban areas. Repairing public latrines, if they exist, is a short term option. Nevertheless these actions may not necessarily be sufficient to change habits, even in the short term.
Water, sanitation and hygiene for populations at risk
A safely managed sanitation service is defined as an improved sanitation facility which is not shared with other households and where excreta are safely disposed in situ or transported and treated off-site. Global target: of people have access to safe water. On track to reach target: With current rate of progress, target will be reached by year:. Indicator 6. Download snapshot. Country or area , SDG region, world 6.
By Aradhna Duggal. Every year 22 March marks the World Water Day — a day on which we underscore the critical importance of water and remind ourselves that millions of people around the world do not have access to safe drinking water or adequate sanitation. For most of us, clean water and toilets are something we take for granted but in remote, rural places such as Kratie province in Cambodia, many communities are still drinking unsafe water and practising open defecation, leaving them vulnerable to disease and long-term health problems. If the whole community has poor hygiene, they get more disease and spend more time and money on treatment. Sixty-six per cent of the people living in rural areas practise open defecation. Fifty children under-five die every day mainly because of preventable and treatable diseases, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia. They often have diarrhoea because of that.
Secure access to prevent malnutrition
The history of modern food safety regulations can be traced back to the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act, both passed in by Theodore Roosevelt into law. Food Safety Training Requirements. Know the food sanitation rules.
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Ясно, что ему не удастся влиться в это море, которое раздавит его, как утлую лодчонку. Рядом с ним кого-то рвало. Хорошенькая картинка. Беккер застонал и начал выбираться из расписанного краской из баллончиков зала. Он оказался в узком, увешанном зеркалами туннеле, который вел на открытую террасу, уставленную столами и стульями. На террасе тоже было полно панков, но Беккеру она показалась чем-то вроде Шангри-Ла: ночное летнее небо над головой, тихие волны долетающей из зала музыки. Не обращая внимания на устремленные на него любопытные взгляды десятков пар глаз, Беккер шагнул в толпу.