Job satisfaction and employee work attitude thesis pdf

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job satisfaction and employee work attitude thesis pdf

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The happier the individual, the higher is level of job satisfaction. Intech Anugrah Indonesia PT.

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Workplace democracy

A common theory within the research has been that, to an extent, the emotional state of an individual is affected by interactions with their work environment. People identify themselves by their profession, such as a doctor, lawyer, or teacher. The emotional component refers to job-related feelings such as boredom, anxiety, acknowledgement and excitement.

Job satisfaction refers to the positive attitudes or emotional dispositions people may gain from work or through aspects of work.

There are essentially two types of job satisfaction based on the level of employees' feelings regarding their jobs. The first, and most analysed, is global job satisfaction, which refers to employees' overall feelings about their jobs e. One such myth is that a happy employee is a productive employee Syptak et al.

Happy employees do not negatively affect productivity and can have a positive effect at workplace and on society at large. It also positively impacts the organization's brand image. Therefore, it still benefits all parties to have happy and satisfied employees. Another fallacy is that the pay is the most important factor in job satisfaction. In reality, employees are more satisfied when they enjoy the environment in which they work Berry, An individual can have a high paying job and not be satisfied because it is boring and lacks sufficient stimulation.

In fact, a low-paying job can be seen as satisfying if it is adequately challenging or stimulating. There are numerous factors that must be taken into consideration when determining how satisfied an employee is with his or her job, and it is not always easy to determine which factors are most important to each employee.

Job satisfaction is very subjective for each employee and each situation being assessed. Return to Top. There are many probable influences that affect how favorably an individual appraises his or her job. They also defined four personal and work outcomes: internal work motivation, growth satisfaction, general satisfaction, and work effectiveness which have been added to the more popular dimensions of job satisfaction assessment: the work itself, pay, promotional opportunities, supervision, and co-worker relations Smith et al.

This comparison would apply to each job facet including: skill level, seniority, promotional opportunities, supervision, etc. Jex, According to Locke , this process becomes even more complex since the importance of work facets differs as per individual perception.

For example, one employee may feel that pay rate is extremely important while another may feel that social relationships are more important. To explain the effects of these differences, Locke put forth the ideas of the range of affect theory. The hypothesis of this theory is that employees weigh facets differently while assessing job satisfaction Locke, Consequently, this leads to an individual measure of satisfaction or dissatisfaction when expectations are met or not.

For example, the job satisfaction of an employee who places extreme importance on pay would be positively impacted if he or she receives a salary within expectation. Conversely, his or her level of pay would minimally impact the job satisfaction of an employee who places little importance on pay.

Social information processing organizational characteristics. In other words, if employees find their co-workers positive and satisfied then they will most likely be satisfied; however, if their co-workers are negative and dissatisfied then the employee will most likely become dissatisfied. Weiss and Shaw conducted a study that required subjects to view a training video where assembly-line workers either made positive or negative comments regarding their jobs.

The subjects who viewed the video were then given the opportunity to perform the job. The study found that the subjects who were shown the positive video enjoyed performing the job tasks more than the subjects who viewed the negative tape Aamondt, Mirolli et al.

In this study, the subjects performed a task with two experimenters pretending to be other subjects referred to as confederates. In one condition, positive comments were made by the confederates about the job and how much they enjoyed it.

In the second condition, the confederates made negative comments about the job and how much they disliked it. In the control condition, no positive or negative comments were made regarding the job. The actual subjects exposed to the confederates who made positive comments rated the job tasks as more enjoyable than the subjects exposed to the negative comments by the confederates. This further supports social information processing theory Aamondt, As an application of social information processing theory, Netzwerk, an IT company in Germany, implemented rules in their contracts.

Employees who work at this company must sign a contract agreeing not to whine or complain and have even fired employees for excessive whining Aamondt, Dispositional worker characteristics. More simply put, some people are genetically positive in disposition the glass half full , whereas others are innately negative in disposition the glass half empty.

For instance, a study of twins who were reared apart same genetic characteristics but different experiences found that 30 percent of inconsistency in satisfaction was accredited to genetic factors Arvey et al. Additionally, Staw et al. There is ample evidence supporting disposition causing job satisfaction from a Social Cognitive aspect as well.

Causation through disposition indicates that job satisfaction can be determined by an individual's general overall outlook. Moreover, the automated thoughts and processes Beck, resulting from irrational and dysfunctional thinking perpetuate emotions of depression and unhappiness in individuals.

Judge and Locke examined these concepts in detail. They discussed cognitive processes like perfectionism, over-generalization and dependence on others as causation for depression leading to unhappiness. They claimed that subjective well-being resulting from an affective disposition leads to individuals experiencing information recall regarding their job. In short, happy individuals tend to store and evaluate job information differently than unhappy individuals.

This type of recollection indicates that job satisfaction may be influenced by subjective well-being. Tait, Padgett, and Baldwin performed a meta-analytic review discovering an average correlation between job and life satisfaction to be 0. Also, Bandura states that individual's aspirations become their standards of self-satisfaction indicating that those with high goals, theoretically, should be harder to satisfy than people with low goals.

This would indicate that a high level of ambition resulting from high standards can point to a lower satisfaction as an end result. In addition, it is often the case that unsatisfied workers are highly ambitious but unhappy as a result of their inability to be promoted within an organization.

For this reason, ambition can negatively influence job satisfaction. However, Judge and Locke caution that dysfunctional thinking is not singularly responsible for dispositional factors affecting job satisfaction. They mention self-esteem, locus of control, self-efficacy, intelligence, and ambition as well.

Job characteristics have been shown to impact job satisfaction Baker, Recent studies on social informational processing have found that leadership actions influence job satisfaction Baker, Various research findings have indicated that a relationship between disposition and job satisfaction does in fact exist.

Weiss and Cropanzano advocated that emotionally significant procedures at work may be influenced by disposition, which in turn influences job satisfaction. Job characteristics have been favored in research Thomas et al. Life Satisfaction. Life satisfaction is often considered separately from job satisfaction with regard to productivity in the workplace, but since the majority of this research is correlational, it is crucial to explore potential relationships between these two factors themselves rather than strictly with regard to performance.

Research suggests there is in fact a significant relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction, with a correlation of 0. With this relationship being correlational, causation cannot be determined, though it is suggested that the nature of the relationship is reciprocal or bi-directional. Judge et al. Conversely, some research suggests that life satisfaction often precedes and is a good predictor of job satisfaction Judge et al. It is difficult to establish all the antecedents that lead to job satisfaction.

However, an additional construct that has a positive correlation to job satisfaction is engagement. In a meta-analysis, the correlation between job satisfaction and engagement is 0. Stirling notes that 20 percent of engaged individuals do 80 percent of the work. An engaged team member is one who is enthusiastic about the organization and the work they do.

Therefore, it is crucial to continue to cultivate job satisfaction among such highly productive individuals. A study completed examined three possible factors which play a part in employee engagement. As mentioned in the overview, job satisfaction has been linked to many variables including performance, absenteeism and turnover, which will be discussed further in this section.

Employee performance. The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance has a long and controversial history. For example, some jobs are designed so that a minimum level of performance is required providing no scope for greater satisfaction. In , researcher Michelle Jones analyzed three studies combining 74 separate investigations of job satisfaction and job performance in 12, workers.

She wrote: "The conclusions drawn by these researchers, and many others, indicate the presence of a positive, but very weak, relationship between job satisfaction and job performance" Jones, Jones argues that we have been measuring the wrong kind of satisfaction.

Instead of job satisfaction, we should be looking at the link between overall satisfaction with life and output at work Bright, In this study, Jones implies that the more satisfied we are with our life in general, the more productive we will be in our jobs.

Employee absenteeism. Yet again, the link between these factors and job satisfaction is weak. The correlation between job satisfaction and absenteeism is 0.

According to a meta-analysis of 42 studies, the correlation between job satisfaction and turnover is 0. Another researcher viewed the relationship between job satisfaction and an employee's intent to leave the organization, turnover intention, as mediated by workplace culture. Medina found that job satisfaction was strongly inversely correlated with turnover intention and this relationship was mediated by satisfaction in workplace culture.

The study provides evidence that should be further explored to aid in the understanding of employee turnover and job satisfaction; particularly in how job satisfaction and employee turnover relate to workplace culture Medina, The following video depicts the importance of job satisfaction to employee retention. Employee retention is one of the most difficult operational areas for human resources managers to determine exactly why employees leave the organization, and what they should do to retain them.

In difficult economies and highly competitive markets, both organizations and employees want the best resources. Job dissatisfaction leads to job turnover.

Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

Items in Shodhganga are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Shodhganga Mirror Site. Show full item record. Study on employees attitude towards training and development programmes in it sector at Chennai. Muthuvelayutham C. Employees attitude IT sector Management training and development programmes.

Workplace democracy is the application of democracy in various forms examples include voting systems, debates, democratic structuring, due process, adversarial process, systems of appeal to the workplace. It can be implemented in a variety of ways, depending on the size, culture, and other variables of an organization. From as early as the s, scholars have been exploring the idea of increasing employee participation and involvement. They sought to learn if whether including employees in organizational decision-making would lead to increased effectiveness and productivity within the organization. According to Lewin, individuals who are involved in decision-making also have increased openness to change. Success of the employee-owned and operated Mondragon suggests economic benefits from workplace democracy.

A common theory within the research has been that, to an extent, the emotional state of an individual is affected by interactions with their work environment. People identify themselves by their profession, such as a doctor, lawyer, or teacher. The emotional component refers to job-related feelings such as boredom, anxiety, acknowledgement and excitement. Job satisfaction refers to the positive attitudes or emotional dispositions people may gain from work or through aspects of work. There are essentially two types of job satisfaction based on the level of employees' feelings regarding their jobs. The first, and most analysed, is global job satisfaction, which refers to employees' overall feelings about their jobs e.

great deal on determining the level of employee job satisfaction, job attitude and perceived equity on CERTIFICATION OF THESIS WORK

International journal of Criminal Study

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Based more on practical and contextual , rather than theoretical grounds, over time, job satisfaction came to be the work attitude of choice for many early researchers interested in studying the relationship between employee attitudes and efficiency.


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