Hare ethical theory and utilitarianism pdf

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hare ethical theory and utilitarianism pdf

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Universalized prescriptivism and utilitarianism: Hare's attempted forced marriage

Hare , was an English moral philosopher who held the post of White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from until He subsequently taught for a number of years at the University of Florida. His meta-ethical theories were influential during the second half of the twentieth century. Hare is best known for his development of prescriptivism as a meta-ethical theory, the analysis of formal features of moral discourse justifying preference utilitarianism.

Richard Hare was born in Backwell , Somerset. Although he was a pacifist , he volunteered for service in the Royal Artillery. His earliest work in philosophy, which has never been published, dates from this period, and in it, [6] [7] [8] he tried to develop a system that might "serve as a guide to life in the harshest conditions", according to The Independent. He returned to Oxford after the war, and in , married Catherine Verney, a marriage that produced a son and three daughters.

Hare's son, John E. Hare , is also a philosopher. He was elected fellow and tutor in philosophy at Balliol from to ; honorary fellow at Balliol from to ; and was appointed Wilde Lecturer in Natural Religion, —66; and White's Professor of Moral Philosophy, —, which accompanied a move to Corpus Christi.

He was president of the Aristotelian Society from to After suffering a series of strokes , R. Hare died in Ewelme, Oxfordshire , on 29 January [9]. At his memorial service held at St Mary's Church, Oxford , in May of that year, Peter Singer delivered as he felt Hare would have wished a lecture on Hare's "Achievements in Moral Philosophy" which concluded by giving three "major, lasting" ones, namely, "restoring reason to moral argument, distinguishing intuitive and critical levels of moral thinking, and pioneering the development of Hare was greatly influenced by the emotivism of A.

Ayer and Charles L. Stevenson , [10] the ordinary language philosophy of J. Austin , a certain reading of the later philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein , [3] utilitarianism , and Immanuel Kant.

Hare held that ethical rules should not be based on a principle of utility, though he took into account utilitarian considerations. His hybrid approach to meta-ethics distinguishes him from classical utilitarians like Jeremy Bentham. His book Sorting Out Ethics might be interpreted as saying that Hare is as much a Kantian as he is a utilitarian, but other sources [11] disagree with this assessment. Although Hare used many concepts from Kant, especially the idea of universalisability , he was still a consequentialist , rather than a deontologist , in his normative ethical views.

Hare himself addressed the possibility that Kant was a utilitarian like himself, in his "Could Kant Have Been a Utilitarian? In a series of books, especially The Language of Morals , Freedom and Reason , and Moral Thinking , Hare gave shape to a theory that he called universal prescriptivism. According to this, moral terms such as 'good', 'ought' and 'right' have two logical or semantic properties: universalizability and prescriptivity.

By the former, he meant that moral judgments must identify the situation they describe according to a finite set of universal terms, excluding proper names , but not definite descriptions.

By the latter, he meant that moral agents must perform those acts they consider themselves to have an obligation to perform whenever they are physically and psychologically able to do so.

In other words, he argued that it made no sense for someone to say, sincerely: "I ought to do X", and then fail to do X. This was identified by Frankena, Nobis and others as a major flaw in Hare's system, as it appeared to take no account of akrasia , or weakness of the will. Hare argued that the combination of universalizability and prescriptivity leads to a certain form of consequentialism , namely, preference utilitarianism. In brief, this means that we should act in such a way as to maximise the satisfaction of people's preferences.

Hare departs from Kant's view that only the most general maxims of conduct be used for example, "do not steal" , but the consequences ignored, when applying the categorical imperative. To ignore consequences leads to absurdity: for example, that it would be wrong to steal a terrorist's plans to blow up a nuclear facility.

All the specific facts of a circumstance must be considered, and these include probable consequences. They also include the relevant, universal properties of the facts: for example, the psychological states of those involved. While Hare was primarily interested in meta-ethics, he also made some important contributions to the fields of political philosophy and applied ethics.

Among his essays within these fields those on the wrongness of slavery, abortion and the Golden Rule , and on demi-vegetarianism have received the most attention.

Hare's most important work in political philosophy and applied ethics is collected in the two volumes Essays on Political Morality and Essays on Bioethics , both published by Oxford University Press. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Backwell , Somerset , England. Ewelme , Oxfordshire , England. Immanuel Kant A. Ayer J.

Austin Ludwig Wittgenstein. Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 8 May The Moral Philosophy of Bernard Williams. Perry, Alexandra; Herrera, C. Christopher D. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. The Independent. Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original PDF on 8 September The Guardian. Hare in Conversation Archived from the original on 11 December Once, on leave from the Army, I sat down at home and wrote an essay of some twenty pages on 'My Philosophy' — a very pretentious thing to do, but pardonable, since we all thought we would be killed in the War, and I wanted to put it on record.

When I was taken prisoner at the fall of Singapore, I looted a beautiful ledger from the office in Changi jail, and used it to expand the essay into a book of some pages, written a few pages at a time in manuscript when I had the leisure during my three and a half years in prison.

This book travelled with me on my back almost all the way to the Thai—Burma frontier. When Singapore fell, he looted a ledger from Changi jail, and started writing a monograph called "An Essay in Monism". He carried this on his back during the march, and completed it just before being released. He typed it out, making multiple copies, once he was free It remains very little known As it is only accessible within the archives of Balliol College, Oxford: it may be apt to supply a density of quotation.

Indeed, that particular paper is one that he was able to write with an authority that few others could possess, since, as he notes, he had in a manner of speaking been a slave, when as a prisoner of the Japanese he worked on the Burma railway. The New York Times. Hare — Issue 35 Philosophy Now". Retrieved 9 May The theory of emotivism, defended in different ways by C. Stevenson and the young A.

Ayer, formed the background to Hare's early work, and he was concerned both to acknowledge its insights and correct its inadequacies. Hare didn't entirely reject emotivism, but He was consistently opposed to the 'descriptivism' that held that the meaning of moral predicates — good, bad, right, wrong, ought etc.

Morehouse College. Retrieved 18 January Archived from the original PDF on 9 November UNC Charlotte. Animal ethics Bioethics Business ethics Discourse ethics Engineering ethics Environmental ethics Legal ethics Machine ethics Media ethics Medical ethics Nursing ethics Professional ethics Sexual ethics Ethics of artificial intelligence Ethics of eating meat Ethics of technology Ethics of terraforming Ethics of uncertain sentience.

Cognitivism Moral realism Ethical naturalism Ethical non-naturalism Ethical subjectivism Ideal observer theory Divine command theory Error theory Non-cognitivism Emotivism Expressivism Quasi-realism Universal prescriptivism Moral universalism Value monism — Value pluralism Moral relativism Moral nihilism Moral rationalism Ethical intuitionism Moral skepticism.

Mackie G. Casuistry Christian ethics Descriptive ethics Ethics in religion Evolutionary ethics Feminist ethics History of ethics Ideology Islamic ethics Jewish ethics Moral psychology Philosophy of law Political philosophy Population ethics Social philosophy Suffering-focused ethics.

White's Professor of Moral Philosophy, Oxford. Ross Harold Arthur H. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Hare in Balliol College, Oxford. Western philosophy. Balliol College, Oxford University of Florida. Ethics , meta-ethics. Universal prescriptivism , two-level utilitarianism , preference utilitarianism.

Influences Immanuel Kant A.

Utilitarianism and moral education

It is often thought that some version of what is generally called the publicity condition is a reasonable requirement to impose on moral theories. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Richard Mervyn Hare

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Its opening is striking:. I had a strange dream, or half-waking vision, not long ago. But as I was preening myself on this achievement, the mist began to clear, and I saw that I was surrounded on the mountain top by the graves of all those other philosophers, great and small, who had had the same ambition, and thought they had achieved it. And I have come to see, reflecting on my dream, that, ever since, the hard-working philosophical worms had been nibbling away at their systems and showing that the achievement was an illusion.

It was he who made the Utilitarian principle serve as the basis for a unified and comprehensive ethical system that applies, in theory at least, to every area of life. Never before had a complete, detailed system of ethics been so consistently constructed from a single fundamental ethical principle. He never thought that the aim of Utilitarianism was to explain or justify ordinary moral views; it was, rather, to reform them. Both have a taste for observable, practical things.

R. M. Hare

Universalized prescriptivism and utilitarianism: Hare's attempted forced marriage

Hare , was an English moral philosopher who held the post of White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from until He subsequently taught for a number of years at the University of Florida. His meta-ethical theories were influential during the second half of the twentieth century. Hare is best known for his development of prescriptivism as a meta-ethical theory, the analysis of formal features of moral discourse justifying preference utilitarianism.

Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account?

Hare , was an English moral philosopher who held the post of White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from until He subsequently taught for a number of years at the University of Florida. His meta-ethical theories were influential during the second half of the twentieth century. Hare is best known for his development of prescriptivism as a meta-ethical theory, the analysis of formal features of moral discourse justifying preference utilitarianism. Richard Hare was born in Backwell , Somerset. Although he was a pacifist , he volunteered for service in the Royal Artillery.

References

 Тот, который тебе передал Танкадо. - Понятия не имею, о чем. - Лжец! - выкрикнула Сьюзан.  - Я видела твою электронную почту. Хейл замер, потом повернул Сьюзан лицом к .

 Ты сочтешь это сумасшествием, - сказал Беккер, - но мне кажется, что у тебя есть кое-что, что мне очень. - Да? - Меган внезапно насторожилась. Беккер достал из кармана бумажник. - Конечно, я буду счастлив тебе заплатить.  - И он начал отсчитывать купюры.

Он был зашифрован с помощью некоего нового алгоритма, с которым фильтры еще не сталкивались.

COMMENT 3

  • Two-level utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics developed by R. Randy L. - 03.06.2021 at 10:30
  • Hare's preference utilitarianism: an overview and critique. Greg B. - 05.06.2021 at 01:20
  • 1 - Ethical theory and utilitarianism. By R. M. Hare. Edited by Amartya Sen, Bernard Williams; Publisher: Cambridge University Press; DOI. Christopher C. - 07.06.2021 at 11:15

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