Nomenclature excellent ionic and covalent compounds key pdf
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- 4.3: Covalent Compounds - Formulas and Names
- ionic compounds and nomenclature
- 4.3: Covalent Compounds - Formulas and Names
Ionic and covalent compounds can be distinguished by the types of atoms they contain.
4.3: Covalent Compounds - Formulas and Names
What elements make covalent bonds? Covalent bonds form when two or more nonmetals combine. For example, both hydrogen and oxygen are nonmetals, and when they combine to make water, they do so by forming covalent bonds. Compounds that are composed of only non-metals or semi-metals with non-metals will display covalent bonding and will be classified as molecular compounds.
As a general rule of thumb, compounds that involve a metal binding with either a non-metal or a semi-metal will display ionic bonding. Thus, the compound formed from sodium and chlorine will be ionic a metal and a non-metal. Nitrogen monoxide NO will be a covalently bound molecule two non-metals , silicon dioxide SiO 2 will be a covalently bound molecule a semi-metal and a non-metal and MgCl 2 will be ionic a metal and a non-metal.
The ammonium ion see figure below consists of one nitrogen atom and four hydrogen atoms. The atoms of a polyatomic ion are tightly bonded together and so the entire ion behaves as a single unit.
Several examples are found in Table 3. Nonmetal atoms in polyatomic ions are joined by covalent bonds, but the ion as a whole participates in ionic bonding.
Both ionic and covalent bonding are also found in calcium carbonate. Compounds that contain covalent bonds also called molecular compounds exhibit different physical properties than ionic compounds.
Because the attraction between molecules, which are electrically neutral, is weaker than that between electrically charged ions, covalent compounds generally have much lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds discussed in Section 3. In fact, many covalent compounds are liquids or gases at room temperature, and, in their solid states, they are typically much softer than ionic solids.
Furthermore, whereas ionic compounds are good conductors of electricity when dissolved in water, most covalent compounds, being electrically neutral, are poor conductors of electricity in any state. The attraction between molecules called intermolecular forces will be discussed in more detail in Section 8.
Because sodium is a metal and we recognize the formula for the phosphate ion, we know that this compound is ionic. However, within the polyatomic phosphate ion, the atoms are held together by covalent bonds, so this compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds. Therefore, the atoms form covalent bonds. The chemical formulas for covalent compounds are referred to as molecular formulas because these compounds exist as separate, discrete molecules. Typically, a molecular formula begins with the nonmetal that is closest to the lower left corner of the periodic table, except that hydrogen is almost never written first H 2 O is the prominent exception.
Then the other nonmetal symbols are listed. Numerical subscripts are used if there is more than one of a particular atom. For example, we have already seen CH 4 , the molecular formula for methane. Below is the molecular formula of ammonia, NH 3. Naming binary two-element covalent compounds is similar to naming simple ionic compounds. The first element in the formula is simply listed using the name of the element.
The second element is named by taking the stem of the element name and adding the suffix - ide. A system of numerical prefixes is used to specify the number of atoms in a molecule. Let us practice by naming the compound whose molecular formula is CCl 4. The name begins with the name of the first element—carbon. Putting these pieces together gives the name carbon tetrachloride for this compound.
Because it is so unreactive, sulfur hexafluoride is used as a spark suppressant in electrical devices such as transformers. For some simple covalent compounds, we use common names rather than systematic names. We have already encountered these compounds, but we list them here explicitly:. Methane is the simplest organic compound. Organic compounds are compounds with carbon atoms and are named by a separate nomenclature system that we will introduce in Section 4.
What is the name of the simplest organic compound? What would its name be if it followed the nomenclature for binary covalent compounds? Learning Objectives Identify covalent and ionic compounds. Determine the chemical formula of a simple covalent compound from its name.
Determine the name of a simple covalent compound from its chemical formula. Characteristics of Covalent Molecular Compounds Compounds that contain covalent bonds also called molecular compounds exhibit different physical properties than ionic compounds.
Answer b Because sodium is a metal and we recognize the formula for the phosphate ion, we know that this compound is ionic. Concept Review Exercises How do you recognize a covalent compound? What are the rules for writing the molecular formula of a simple covalent compound? What are the rules for naming a simple covalent compound? Answers A covalent compound is usually composed of two or more nonmetal elements. It is just like an ionic compound except that the element further down and to the left on the periodic table is listed first and is named with the element name.
Name the first element first and then the second element by using the stem of the element name plus the suffix -ide. Use numerical prefixes if there is more than one atom of the first element; always use numerical prefixes for the number of atoms of the second element. Key Takeaways The chemical formula of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its name.
The name of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its chemical formula. Exercises Identify whether each compound has covalent bonds. Identify whether each compound has covalent bonds. Identify whether each compound has ionic bonds, covalent bonds, or both. Which is the correct molecular formula—H 4 Si or SiH 4?
Which is the correct molecular formula—SF 6 or F 6 S? Write the name for each covalent compound. Write the formula for each covalent compound. Write two covalent compounds that have common rather than systematic names. Answers no yes yes yes. SiH 4 ; except for water, hydrogen is almost never listed first in a covalent compound. SF 6 ; the less electronegative atom S is written first.
ionic compounds and nomenclature
What elements make covalent bonds? Covalent bonds form when two or more nonmetals combine. For example, both hydrogen and oxygen are nonmetals, and when they combine to make water, they do so by forming covalent bonds. Compounds that are composed of only non-metals or semi-metals with non-metals will display covalent bonding and will be classified as molecular compounds. As a general rule of thumb, compounds that involve a metal binding with either a non-metal or a semi-metal will display ionic bonding. Thus, the compound formed from sodium and chlorine will be ionic a metal and a non-metal.
Write a simple rule that will allow you to classify compounds as ionic or covalent on the basis of what you have learned from the Model. CuOH copper I hydroxide. Then, use the correct formula writing rules to write the correct chemical formulas for each compound. C is the elemental form of carbon. When naming an Ionic Ionic bonds are between non-metals and metals.
Use Lewis dot structures to represent atoms in ionic and covalent bonds. compared Ionic and. Covalent Bonding Worksheet Answer Key with Best Covalent Bonding names covalent compounds working in Chapter 7 practice to work on Chemthinkionicbonding PDF Chemthink Com Ch 8 Ionic Bonding Questions Part.
4.3: Covalent Compounds - Formulas and Names
We love this fun, interactive idea for building simple ionic compounds in the classroom! Like all chemistry teachers, I dreaded the compounds unit because students always forgot naming rules or applied them incorrectly! I made this handout for students to practice naming compounds AFTER the students learned how to name binary molecules, ionic salts and metal oxides, and acids. Ionic Vs.
This group, known as the cyano group , consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. Soluble salts such as sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide are highly toxic. It is obtained by acidification of cyanide salts.
Concept Review Exercises
WKS 7. Cations formed from metal atoms have the same name as the metal. Name the cation. If given the name, is the word acid in the name? Name the positive ion. Determine whether the following compounds are covalent or ionic and give them their proper names or Formulas C 2.
A IIS drate of magnesium sulfate has a mass of This sample is heated until no water remains. Showing top 8 worksheets in the category naming hydrates. Hydrates are important chemical compounds, and you can test your ability to determine their formulas using this printable worksheet and quiz. It has water molecules loosely attached to it. The MgSO 4 anhydrate has a mass of 6. Find the formula and name of the hydrate.
There are three steps involved in naming ionic compounds- naming the cation, naming the anion, and naming the entire compound. Naming chemical compounds worksheet answers. Naming ionic compounds with roman numerals worksheet. GNU Ghostscript 7. Name period use this packet and your book to answer the questions throughout this packet.
Ionic and Covalent Compound Naming.