National policy on occupational safety and health in nigeria pdf

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national policy on occupational safety and health in nigeria pdf

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Usman Abubakar 1,2. The study looks at each of the five OSH regulatory and enforcement models against a range of performance themes with a view to uncovering strategic lessons for Nigeria and other developing nations. The study identifies some of the potential drivers behind the developments of the different OSH management frameworks.

Enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations in Nigeria: An exploration

Usman Abubakar 1,2. The study looks at each of the five OSH regulatory and enforcement models against a range of performance themes with a view to uncovering strategic lessons for Nigeria and other developing nations.

The study identifies some of the potential drivers behind the developments of the different OSH management frameworks. Even though Nigeria is used as a reference case study, the observations and conclusions drawn are generic and applicable to typical developing countries.

Although Nigeria is working to implement a new and more comprehensive OSH law, i. The second part of this bipartite series will address some of the key structural and potential implementation issues surrounding LSHW Bill.

Regardless of the governing factors, national economic growth and development on the basis of weak OSH regulatory regime is an invitation for accidents. According to the International Labour Organization ILO , on an average, work-related accidents and illnesses kill more than 4 people in every single minute; and, during the same period, more than people sustain various work-related injuries across the world [ 1 ]. Work-related accidents and illnesses cost the world about U.

Current, large enough and coherent OSH databanks are hard to come by in Nigeria [ 3 , 4 ]. This is based on the data available in However, a recent study, though riddled with data limitation, suggests that work-related fatalities are on the increase in Nigeria between and Nonetheless, unlike the situation in Nigeria, workplaces in some of these countries have become safer over the years.

For instance, while UK had 0. S had 5. No doubt, Nigeria and other developing countries could gain from the vast experiences of those countries that have hugely invested and developed OSH management systems over several decades of hard work.

This will not only save the developing countries vast financial resources, it will also accelerate the OSH development process. This study seeks to bring closer some of the OSH development experiences of those advanced economies. The study methodology is highlighted in the following section.

The OSH regulatory framework for each country is reviewed against a number of topics grouped under the following broad themes:. View next figure. Both general and specific notes observed are then discussed making close reference to Nigeria.

The study closes with conclusions and a list of references for further reading. In terms of structure, currently, HSE has a management board comprising of a Secretary and eight Directors, each managing a specific unit.

The Board itself is under the purview of a Chief Executive officer. HSC comprises of non-executive members headed by a Chair person. On behalf of the HSE, HSL provides workplace health and safety research, training and consultancy services to industries, commerce sectors, Government and professional bodies [ 13 ]. This arrangement is meant to confer some degree of executive independence to HSE which is good for proper OSH management. For instance, the mandate for UK civil nuclear safety regulation is given to the Office for Nuclear Regulation ONR which is an independent statutory corporation.

Also, enforcement of OSH regulations at certain local business outfits such as shops, hotels and restaurants is the direct responsibility of the local authorities rather than HSE.

Similarly, certain Government agencies are responsible for safety and health administration in some specific cases, e. Road traffic issues and Waste disposal are the responsibilities of Police and Environmental agency respectively [ 17 ]. Some of the early historical events standing as pillars for the current UK regulatory regime are: the establishment of the Robert Owen's Grand National Consolidated Trades Union in [ 20 ] ; enactment of the Workmen's Compensation Act in [ 21 ] and the Factories Act in c.

OSHRC entertains appeals made by duty holders against enforcement actions [ 24 ]. S and reports to the Secretary of Labour who heads the U. S Department of Labour. Two Deputy Assistant Secretaries support the A. S with management of various Directorates.

S congress [ 27 ] , with this arrangement in which OSHA boss is under the purview of the Secretary of labour as an Assistant, OSH matters are likely to be influenced considerably by the Secretary of Labour. S civilian nuclear safety management mandate is vested on the U. Functionally, NRC is an independent body headed by a five-member commission. The U. S President appoints one of the five commissioners to serve as the Chairperson of the Commission [ 28 ].

Some of the important U. S labour force is about m [ 30 ]. A number of historic events took place and culminate in the current OSH management landscape. These include the establishment of National Labour Union in [ 31 ] ; enactment of the Massachusetts Factory Act in [ 32 ] which is the first U.

S factory inspection law. The first legal provision covering federal employees was articulated in the Federal Employers' Liability Law of [ 33 ]. OSH enforcement is carried out by individual states and territories in Australia [ 35 ]. The Governing Board oversees the activities of the agency and is also vested with the responsibility for making broad national regulations and policies on OSH [ 36 ].

In addition, section 46 of the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act of requires the CEO to submit both performance and financial statements to the Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations annually [ 34 , 37 ]. Funding is mainly from the statutory contributions made by Commonwealth central Government , states and the territories of Australia.

The revised Model Work Health and Safety Act of makes it incumbent upon employers to report certain incidents. Statistics section of the SWA is a major source of official OSH data which also provides links to a number of related external sources including the Australian Bureau of Statistics [ 34 ].

These antecedents appear to have profound impacts on the current OSH administration standard across Australia. The State Council is headed by a Premier sometimes referred to as Prime Minster who occupies the highest administrative office in China. SAWS is largely state funded with some income generation from enforcements and investments, among others [ 43 ].

In China, the National Nuclear Safety Administration NNSA , which was established in , is responsible for civilian nuclear and radiation hazard protection across the country. The total labour force of China is about m [ 30 ] in However, the total operating costs of the China SAWS could not be accessed at the time of preparing this paper.

These historic events contribute significantly in defining the current workplace atmosphere in China. The very few complementary OSH related regulations are distributed across various legal documents [ 53 , 54 ].

However, enforcement has been poor so far. This failure has been attributed to some structural deficiencies associated with the Factories law. An important goal of sanctions, which include correction and deterrence, is defeated here. In terms of data gathering, currently, there is no reliable online central OSH database in Nigeria [ 4 ].

Nevertheless, the Health Management Information System in Nigeria and the National Bureau of Statistics are valuable sources of generic demographic data. For the same year , the total labour force of Nigeria is about 55m [ 30 ]. Nigerian Civil Service Union NCSU is among the major earlier efforts seeking to entrench the principles of collective bargain and worker welfare in Nigeria. W6 LFN, , [ 60 ]. These key developments, among others, define the current OSH outlook in Nigeria.

While the above sections highlight some of the major characteristics of OSH systems in the five case study countries; the following sections bring to focus, compare and contrast some of the key notes observed in the course this study. From the above review, it can be noted that different countries devolve various degree of independence to their respective OSH focal authorities. This provision gives the HSE some buffer against political interference. The arrangement is slightly different in the U.

S where the OSHA appears to be more closely tied and responsive to the directives of the Secretary of Labour who is in turn answerable to the President. In this respect, the arrangement in Australia is similar to that in the U. This could potentially undermine the independence of the SWA chair to some extent.

S, China, Australia and Nigeria delegates such functions to separate agencies rather than keep them under the purview of the central OSH regulatory body.

Similarly, the U. However, unlike the UK and U. Unfortunately, the petroleum sector, which is under the purview of the MPR, is the single largest importer of radionuclide materials in Nigeria [ 61 ]. This seemingly subtle link has the potential to hinder NNRA in discharging its mandates; as the saying goes, one may not bite the finger that feeds him.

S, Australia and China. Nigeria and many other developing countries are striving to achieve this or similar arrangement which features a more centralised, overarching and empowered OSH regulatory and enforcement agency. In addition, the study also observes a number of specific issues which are worth further elaboration. The following subsections are used to discuss, compare and contrast these key issues at greater lengths. In terms of scope and budget allocation, it appears that the Inspectorate Division, which is under the Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity, Nigeria, is grossly underfunded.

On the other hand, for the same fiscal year, the total annual budgetary allocation of the entire Ministry of Labour headquarters, which comprises the Inspectorate Division ID and about 5 other departments, stood at about N2. PowerPoint Slide. Larger image png format Tables index Veiw figure View current table in a new window. In addition, the National Labour Force figures used for the estimations comprise of both employed and unemployed people aged 15 and above [ 30 ].

Strictly speaking, part of the labour force that is without work but available for and seeking employment needs to be subtracted across the board.

The estimates are purely based on the running costs incurred by the central OSH agency which also assumes that all the workers in each of the study countries are under the purview of the central OSH regulatory body.

According to a study, the average litigation lifecycle of a case in Nigerian courts is more than 5 years [ 64 ]. S and NICN Nigeria decision frequency for the period — is given in Figure 2 , the data sets were extracted from [ 65 , 66 ] :.

Large volumes of OSH related appeals should be expected especially within the take-off years. Unless duly addressed, this grey area may lend itself to some defaulters who may use it to frustrate the OSH regulatory efforts.


This article discusses some of the currently specific concerns and issues relating to occupational health in the developing world and elsewhere. The general technical subjects common to both the developed and the developing world e. In addition to the developing countries, some of the emerging occupational health issues of the Eastern European nations too have been addressed separately in this chapter. It is estimated that by the year eight out of ten workers in the global workforce will be from the developing world, demonstrating the need to focus on the occupational health priority needs of these nations. Furthermore, the priority issue in occupational health for these nations is a system for the provision of health care to their working population. This need fits in with the World Health Organization WHO definition of occupational health, which expresses the concern for the total health of the worker and is not confined merely to occupational diseases. As shown in figure

FEC approves new National Policy on Occupational Safety 2020

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Start Browse by Day Author Index. Introduction Nigeria with a population of million and a total land area of , square kilometres, Nigeria is the fourth largest country in Africa. Sales, services and agriculture are the most common occupations among both men and women. Occupational health can still be described as rudimentary and evolving in the country. This review is conducted to trace the evolution, level of development, development and status of occupation health in Nigeria till date.

European Scientific Journal, 3. This paper examines the enforcement of occupational safety and health OSH regulations; it validates the state of enforcement of OSH regulations by extracting the salient issues that influence enforcement of OSH regulations in Nigeria. Sadly enough, the impact of the enforcement authority is ineffective, as the key stakeholders pay less attention to OSH regulations; thus, rendering the OSH scheme dysfunctional and unenforceable, at the same time impeding OSH development. For optimum OSH in Nigeria, maximum enforcement and compliance with the regulations must be in place. This paper, which is based on conceptual analysis, reviews literature gathered through desk literature search.

FEC approves new National Policy on Occupational Safety 2020

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